Microalgae offer great potential for exploitation, including the production of biodiesel. But the process is still some way from being carbon neutral or commercially viable. Part of the problem is that there is little established background knowledge in the area. We should look both to achieve incremental steps and to increase our fundamental understanding of algae to identify potential paradigm shifts. In doing this, integration of biology and engineering will be essential. In this review we present an overview of a potential algal bio-fuel pipeline, and focus on recent work that tackles optimization of algal biomass production and the content of fuel molecules within the algal cell.
Bioenergy is one of the most important components to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and substitute of fossil fuels. The need of energy is increasing continuously, because of increases in industrialization and population. The basic sources of this energy are petroleum, natural gas, coal, hydro and nuclear .The major disadvantage of using petroleum-based fuels is atmospheric pollution created by the use of petroleum diesel .Petroleum diesel combustion is a major source of greenhouse gas(GHG).Apart from these emissions, petroleum diesel is also major source of other air contaminants including NO, SO, CO, particulate matter and volatile organic compounds. Biomass is one of the better sources of energy. Large-scale introduction of biomass energy could contribute to sustainable development on several fronts, environmentally, socially and economics. Biodiesel (mono alkyl esters) is one of such alternative fuel, which is obtained by the trans esterification of triglyceride oil with monohydric alcohols.